special note: More recently mainland China is going through what is also happening in India during the festival of Diwali…President Xi Jingping warns the Chinese people to cut down on firecrackers each year, during the Chinese New Year…In China, firecrackers have always been a part of the cultural celebration..louder the noise, the further you would drive away the evil spirits, to welcome in the Chinese new year…but most Chinese could not resist the FREEDOM TO SPEND money, tons of it, to buy and enjoy the firecrackers every year…and by the morning the next day, you could see layers of the residue of the firecrackers all over a city or in some residential neighborhoods…I understand why People in India are doing the same…Diwali is a very important part of Indian culture…but now the people in Delhi cannot breathe…who is to blame? the people themselves…STEVE, USA, NOVEMBER 8, 2018
Toxic smog returns to Delhi after Diwali
- 8 November 2018 BBC News
Air pollution in the Indian capital has risen to hazardous levels after firecrackers were set off to celebrate Diwali despite a court ban.
Residents awoke on Thursday to find the city blanketed in a toxic fog.
The Supreme Court had restricted the timeframe for setting off firecrackers to only two hours in the night, but the order was openly flouted.
Diwali, the most important Hindu festival in north India, celebrates the victory of good over evil.
The levels of tiny particulate matter (known as PM 2.5) that enter deep into the lungs reached as high as 999 micrograms per cubic metre in some areas of the capital on Thursday morning, according to reports.
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The US embassy tweeted that the air quality measure in Delhi had soared to 526, putting the pollution in the “severe” category and posing a serious health risk to residents.
Last month, the Supreme Court said it wanted to test if banning fireworks would make a difference to Delhi’s air quality, ranked among the worst in the world.
, residents set off firecrackers until late on Wednesday night
But despite the restrictions and the two-hour deadline on the night of the festival, residents of Delhi continued to burn firecrackers until late.
People took to social media to express their frustration over residents flouting court orders with impunity.
Others said blaming the fireworks for the spike in pollution was unfair, as low wind speeds, dust from construction sites, rubbish burning and diesel vehicles also contributed to increasing pollution levels.
Also, air quality in the city worsens every year in November and December as farmers in the neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana burn crop stubble to clear their fields.
The Indian capital is the sixth worst place in the world for pollution, according to World Health Organisation (WHO) data.
The Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP), an emergency government initiative to try and improve conditions, has also launched around Delhi. It bans activities like rubbish burning to try and improve air quality.
- Particulate matter, or PM, 2.5 is a type of pollution involving fine particles less than 2.5 microns (0.0025mm) in diameter
- A second type, PM 10, is of coarser particles with a diameter of up to 10 microns
- Some occur naturally – e.g. from dust storms and forest fires, others from human industrial processes
- They often consist of fragments that are small enough to reach the lungs or, in the smallest cases, to cross into the bloodstream as well
Delhi smog: Foul air came from India’s farming revolution
Soutik Biswas India correspondent BBC News
- 23 October 2018
If there was a gold medal for bad air, Delhi would be hard to beat.
Yet, despite high levels of air pollution, more than 30,000 people, many wearing masks, took part in the capital’s half marathon on Sunday. Organisers said they used devices on the route to transmit radio frequency waves to clear the air, but scientists were sceptical of these claims.
Delhi’s marathon, ironically, marked the beginning of the city’s smog season. But it has been creeping up on the capital for a few weeks now.
A fortnight ago, Nagendar Sharma was returning to Delhi from the hill station city of Shimla when he spotted smoke rising from the farms alongside the highway.
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It looked like someone had picked up a box of matches and set the earth on fire. Lack of winds meant that the acrid smoke hung in the air.
Mr Sharma, the Delhi-based media adviser to the capital’s chief minister, was driving through Haryana, barely 70km (43 miles) from the capital.
When he stopped his vehicle to investigate he found that the farmers had begun to burn the stubble left over from harvesting rice. They said they had to remove the residue in three weeks to prepare the farms to sow wheat. They were burning the crop stubble as they could not afford the expensive machines that would remove them.
“It’s the same old story. Every year,” Mr Sharma said.
Every year, around this time, residents of Delhi wake up to a blanket of thick, grey smog. Pollution levels reach several times the World Health Organisation’s recommended limit. Last year, doctors declared a state of “medical emergency”; and hospitals were clogged with wheezing men, women and children.
Levels of tiny particulate matter (known as PM 2.5) that enter deep into the lungs reached as high as 700 micrograms per cubic metre in some areas. The WHO recommends that the PM2.5 levels should not be more than 25 micrograms per cubic metre on average in 24 hours.
Last winter Air Quality Index (AQI) recordings consistently hit the maximum of 999 – exposure to such toxic air is akin to smoking more than two packs of cigarettes a day. The city becomes what many call a “gas chamber”.
“This marks the beginning of the Great Smog that goes on to last for about three months, even though the crop residue burning lasts a few weeks. It is during this period that air quality indices hit their maximum possible limits, when visibility drops drastically, when regions even far away – such as Delhi – smell of burning gas,” says Siddharth Singh, energy expert and author of a book soon to be published, The Great Smog of India.
And although there are other reasons – construction dust, factory and vehicular emissions – it’s mainly crop residue that has emerged as one of the main triggers for the smog.
More than two million farmers burn 23 million tonnes of crop residue on some 80,000 sq km of farmland in northern India every winter.
The stubble smoke is a lethal cocktail of particulate matter, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. Using satellite data, Harvard University researchers estimated that nearly half of Delhi’s air pollution between 2012 and 2016 was due to stubble burning. Another study attributed more than 40,000 premature deaths in 2011 to air pollution arising from crop residue burning alone.
But it wasn’t always like this.
smoke from the burning fields contains toxic gases
In Mr Singh’s telling, the deadly pea-souper is result of the “evolution of the farming operations, government policy and changing labour markets” sparked by the “green revolution” in India in the late 1960s and 1970s.
The “green revolution” allowed a country wracked by famines, hobbled by un-irrigated farms and dependency on food aid to produce enough grain to feed its people. The northern states of Punjab and Haryana turned into breadbaskets, producing enough rice and wheat for the country. Wheat is sown and harvested during winters, and rice to coincide with the monsoon season in July and August.
Price support for crops, high-yielding seeds, expanded irrigation, official farming timetables and the introduction of combine harvesters – which combined the jobs of cutting and threshing the crop in order to produce processed grain in a matter of seconds – were the catalysts of this modern farming revolution.
The “green revolution” was an unqualified success in giving India much-needed food security. It led to vast increases in wheat and rice production, but also ended up polluting air and depleting groundwater.
“That a revolution in agriculture was necessary is by itself not up for debate. What the revolution and the subsequent policies did, however, was contribute to the creation and timing of the air pollution crisis and also to the rapidly depleting groundwater levels; this has been termed as an ‘agro-ecological’ crisis,” says Mr Singh.
Farmers burn crop residue because the stubble left behind after the combine harvesters have done their job is sharper and taller than it otherwise would be, potentially injurious to farmers and not good fodder for animals. If they do not remove the stubble, straw gets stuck in the machines that plant the rice crop.
smoke remains in the air, causing severe health issues for people
So they simply set fire to the farmland to get the soil ready quickly for the next crop, as Mr Sharma saw on the highway to Delhi.
According to Siddharth Singh, there are some 26,000 combine harvesters in use in India, most of them in northern India. They are responsible for a practice that is now a major contributor to air pollution.
The government has tried to solve this with “happy seeders”, which are attachments mounted on tractors that help plant wheat seeds without getting jammed by rice straw stubble from the previous crop. But they are expensive – upwards of 130,000 rupees (£1,363; $1,769) and diesel-guzzlers – and remain out of reach for most farmers, who own small plots of land.
During the smog season last year, according to Mr Singh, there were about 2,150 of these machines in Punjab and Haryana as against an estimated requirement of more than 21,000. Another machine called the “super straw management system” which chops and spreads the stubble evenly is also effective but expensive for the majority of farmers.
Mr Singh reckons if crop stubble burning is to be stopped fully within five years, 12,000 “happy seeders” will need to be purchased every year. India, he believes, needs a second “green revolution which would be a technological one – one that adequately deals with agricultural shock to air quality”. Until that happens, Delhi’s foul air will continue to poison its 18 million people.